Proper soil compaction is essential for any type of construction projects. This is a process in which the soil, which is consisted of air and water particles, is reduced to some extent by applying weight. This process involves removing air from the soil particles without any significant change in the amount of water consisted in the soil. It is very important because it provides the necessary flat base which provides the crucial support for the buildings, various construction foundations, roads, pavements and any other construction structures. The process of compaction gives the soil higher resistance and greater stability. Usually, soil is divided in two main categories: cohesive and non cohesive. Therefore, the process of compaction is different, depending on the type of soil.
Particles in cohesive soil bond one to another, while in non cohesive soils particles lie one on top of the other without bonding. Regardless of the soil type, failure to remove the air between soil particles before building any construction structure can later cause unexpected and unwanted movement of the soil and penetration or absorption of water beneath the buildings or roads. In this case, the walls of the buildings will begin to crack very easily and perhaps even fall down, pipes beneath the roads will crack or leak, holes will emerge on the roads and they will become insecure. To successfully compact soil and avoid major problems in the future, quality compaction equipment is needed.
The compaction can either be intended or unintended. The intended compaction is done by using compaction equipment such as rammers, vibratory plates, roller compactors or simply rollers. Such compaction equipment is used to achieve soil stability and resistance for buildings, roads, etc. The job of compaction equipment is to minimize the pores of the soil which are filled with water and air. The compaction of the soil is provided by the combined action and force of the vibrating and oscillating roller drum, and the weight of the compaction machine which is used. Many options are available when it comes to choosing the right compaction equipment. The selection of the equipment greatly depends on the characteristics and properties of the soil that needs to be compacted and also on the amount of the material or soil that needs to be compacted. The dynamic compaction of the soil using different types of compaction machines has proven to be very efficient and effective method in construction. To summarize, soil compaction is an important and significant process for any construction project and requires special attention and quality compaction equipment to achieve satisfactory results.